Invention of paper
Muslims were responsible for inventing papermaking machines and spreading paper and throughout the world. The world's first paper mill was set up in Baghdad in early 7th Century AD. There were over fifty paper mills in Baghdad by the beginning of 8th century AD. Production and employee attendance records of some of these mills survive to this day. Papermaking rapidly spread throughout the Muslim empire into Damascus, Egypt, Morocco and most Islamic countries by the 9th century AD. Muslim papermakers also invented the use of flax, cotton, wood, and other substitute fibers (including waste paper) to prepare paper and canvas.

Although the export of paper from the Muslim Empire to Byzantium and other parts of the Christian Empire was allowed in small quantities by the 11th century, paper was disfavored by the Christian Church as a manifestation of Muslim efforts to dominate trade and culture. Efforts were made for hundreds of years to boycott its use. Finally, in 1221 AD, a decree from Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II declared all official documents written on paper to be invalid. Muslim engineers, at the request of influential Italian entrepreneurs, built Europe's first paper mill in Italy by early 15th century. The invention of Gutenberg's printing press in the mid 15th Century forced a change in Church's attitudes toward paper, and bulk supplies continued to be sold by the Ottoman Turks and Egyptians to Europe till the 17th Century, until Europe became self sufficient in paper production.